No one can deny the fact that water is a undeniably valuable natural resource. One can remain about a month without food, but it’s tough to survive for a week without water. Water constitutes about 60% of our body mass, 70% of our brain, and 80% of our blood and hence it is correct to call water as “Elixir of Life”. Although it covers one-third of our planet, just 3% is fresh water, and from that only 1% is easily available for human use. One can very well see from these truths and figures, how important water is to our planet and to human beings. In this context, water requires to be saved and more significantly recycled or treated where possible. It’s not feasible to utilize less than normal quantity of water due to the fact that it is needed for both domestic and commercial or industrial activities. So, the practical technique is to treat or purify it for reuse, and here comes the role of modern-day industrial wastewater treatment plant. Industries like textile generate wastewater in each and every of their process step. Modern day technologies like Zero Discharge (ZLD) treatment offers scope to save every drop of water and also recover valuable salts and minerals.
A few of the sophisticated water treatment equipment are discussed below:
1) Mobile Water Treatment System: This system is fitted on a mobile trailer with all the needed water filtration apparatus. Its benefit is that it can be taken to the application location with no hold-up. This system is suitable for treating both surface area and groundwater. It is a high efficiency and high effectiveness equipment. Its primary types include mobile reverse osmosis system, mobile wastewater treatment system, and mobile drinking water treatment.
2) Surface Water Treatment System: This system or plant is used for filtering the downstream water, purification of water system by local corporations, and so. The main purpose of this system is to eliminate any kind of suspended solids, colloidal matter, organics, iron manganese, etc. The system consists of filters, chlorination devices, and chemical dosers.
3) Mineral Water Treatment plant: This plant is also referred to as drinking water treatment plant. It is among the most substantial types of plants as the water cleansed by it is directly utilized for drinking purpose. This plant not only filters the water, but likewise offers the center of loading it in plastic bottles for offering function.
4) Swimming Pool Water Treatment Plant: As the name recommends this plant is indicated for decontaminating the water of swimming pool. Due to routine use of people in the swimming pool, microbes flourish in them. This infects the water of the pool and may cause several illness. But, the swimming pool water treatment plant eliminates all types of impurities.
5) Seawater Desalination Plants: Seawater desalination plant is created to desalinate or get rid of salt from the sea water. As aforementioned, there is abundant of water on the earth, but only a limited quantity is fresh or drinking water. This plant plays an essential role by changing the salty and raw sea-water into pure drinking water. This system mostly makes use of two techniques for purifying the sea water, i. e. , distillation and electro-dialysis (ion exchange).
6) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant:
Not all types of wastewater is the same. The type of wastewater is determined by the type of the industry and the type of the production process. Hence, it requires different strategies to remove the contamination from the wastewater. Following are some of the methods normally deployed in a Zero Liquid Discharge treatment plant.
- Solids removal
Solids are removed by using sedimentation ponds where the recovered solids are collected as sludge. Finer particles are removed using flocculation using alum salts or by using polyelectrolytes. Much finer particles are removed by filtration membrane processes using a Ultra Filtration membrane.
- Oils and grease removal
Oil and Grease separation is done by through gravity tanks, skimmers, API oil-water separators chemical treatment using DAFs, centrifuges, media filters and hydrocyclones.
- Removal of biodegradable organics
Biodegradable organics are removed using activated sludge process having an aeration tank and a clarifier. It is a biochemical process deploying air or oxygen and microorganisms to bring out the sludge with the oxidized material.
- Brine treatment
On a general note, brine treatment involves removing dissolved salt ions from the waste stream. But industrial brine treatment demands different set of wastewater treatment configuration to handle dissolved ions. The main purpose is to reduce the volume of the final discharge and increase the recovery of clean water and valuable salts and at the same time reduce power consumption and the usage of chemicals.
Following are the wastewater treatment technologies available to treat brine:
Filtration Membrane Processes
- Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane
- Ultra Filtration Membrane
- Nano Filtration Membrane
- Micro Filtration Membrane
- Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR)
Ion Exchange Processes
- Electrodialysis (EDI)
- Weak Acid Cation Exchange
- Brine Concentrators
- Mechanical Recompression
- Removal of other organics
Synthetic organic materials like solvents, paints, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, etc need a completely different approach. Some of the methods are advanced oxidation, distillation, adsorption, vitrification and incineration.
- Removal of acids and alkalis
Acids and alkalis are treated by Neutralisation by deploying de-ionisation (EDI) processes.
- Removal of toxic materials
Toxic materials need special attention in a typical Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) Treatment plant. Metals like zinc, silver, cadmium, thallium and acids, alkalis, non-metallic elements like arsenic or selenium are treated with special expertise by a Zero Liquid Discharge Treatment Plant manufacturing company.
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